Monday, August 24, 2020
Hamlet: Tagic Hero or Insane Madman Teacher Owens English 2410 11 April 2014 Hamlet: Tragic Hero or Insane Madman William Shakespeares Hamlet is a confused and charming play. Hamlet has get back to Denmark to grieve the demise of his dad, who he profoundly appreciated. Upon his appearance he discovers his kin in festivity and celebration, since his uncle, who had expected his dads seat, had likewise hitched Hamlets mother. Slightness, thy name is lady!/A little month, ere those shoes were old/With which she followed my poor dads body,/Like Niobe, all tears:- - why she, even she,,/O God!......She wedded. O, most underhanded speed, to post/With such mastery to forbidden sheets!/It isn't, nor it can't come to great:/But break, my heart, for I should hold my tongue (1.2.146-159)! Hamlet appeared to be acting as needs be with the circumstance. While every other person commended, he offered approach to grieving his late dad. After the gathering has finished, Horatio, a companion of Hamlets takes me to see a phantom. Others have seen this specter, a few watchmen and Horatio himself have laid eyes upon it. The watchmen and Horatio take Hamlet to the stage where the apparition, was last sited. The phantom, who was a dream of his dad, appeared to Hamlet and let him know of his homicide because of his sibling, Claudius. He requests that Hamlet save the sovereign and leave her to paradise (1.5.86). He advised Hamlet to slaughter Claudius and retaliate for his homicide. This makes way for the Hamlets drop into frenzy, or did he truly go distraught? Hamlet had been away for quite a while at school where he was preparing in theory and different investigations which would permit him to accept his dads seat. He was preparing to be a legislator not a killer. Hamlet is a keen and sensible individual. He is torn with regards to what to do in this circumstance and given his experience and his preparation, he begins att empting to demonstrate Claudius is blameworthy, to mitigate his soul. Two school mates stay with Hamlet at the lord and sovereigns demand. They are long-lasting companions of Hamlet and have come to remove him before he raises any more ruckus. Hamlet is canny to their ramblings with regards to why they are there. They question Hamlet with respect to his franticness, to which Hamlet answers I am distraught north-north-west: when the breeze is southerly/I know a bird of prey from a handsaw (2.2.145-146). In the wake of becoming aware of a troupe of players coming into town, Hamlet enrolls the gathering to play out a play where an old ruler is killed on account of his sibling. Sick have the players/play something like the homicide of my dad/before mine uncle: Ill watch his looks:The soul that I have seen/May be the villain; Hamlet is extra cautious not judge Claudius too early, so he enrolls Horatio to watch Claudius from an alternate vantage point to survey the rulers blame. After the play is done and Horatio confirms the response that the ruler worked out as expected, Hamlet goes looking for Claudius to deliver is his retribution. He discovers Claudius in petition. The main thing that was keeping Hamlet down was the Claudius may go to paradise in the event that he murdered him while in supplication. Hamlet needs Claudius soul to endure the outcomes of his activities (3.3.74-97). One may inquire as to why didnt Hamlet take that fortunate second to vindicate his dad and kill his killer. He could have guaranteed craziness in his melancholy. Hamlet left Claudius there and went to discover his mom and go up against her. Obviously, he was wiped out with melancholy and outrage and required her to listen to him. At the point when he got to her room, she feared him and got out for help. Hamlet saw the structure behind the drapery, and accepted it was Claudius and continued to cut him. Hamlet indicated no regret since he felt that he was supported in slaughtering the rulers rodent. The ruler at that point requested Guildenstern and Rosencrantz to remove Hamlet to England where he had solicited the King from England to guillotine him. Hamlet got wind of the news and his late dads seal to
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Betty SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s A Tree Grows in Brooklyn presents the issues of a little youngster transitioning, when she is confronted with new difficulties and must defeat deterrents. All through the book the hero, Francie Nolan finds herself developing as she battles with depression, the loss of guiltlessness and an existence of neediness in a Brooklyn ghetto. This subject is apparent in (1.) her adoration for books which she utilizes as friendship, (2.) her point of view toward the world as she develops lastly, (3.) her acknowledgment that so as to prevail in life she should get training and strive to do it. Probably the greatest test Francie faces while growing up is depression. As a small kid living in a Brooklyn ghetto, Francie has no companions her age. Different youngsters either view her as excessively calm or avoid her for being distinctive due to her broad jargon. Betty Smith portrays how the vast majority of Francie's youth days are spent: in the warm summer days the friendless kid sat on her stoop and imagined scorn for the gathering of youngsters playing on the walkway. Francie played with her fanciful friends and made accept they were superior to genuine youngsters. Be that as it may, at the same time her heart beat in cadence to the piercing misery of the tune the kids sang while strolling around in a ring with hands joined. (106). Francie is desolate, and yearns to be incorporated. As Francie develops, she encounters an alternate sort of dejection. Betty Smith depicts her emotions as she watches her neighborhood: spring came early that year and the sweet warm evenings made her anxious. She strolled here and there the lanes and through the recreation center. Furthermore, any place she went, she saw a kid and a young lady together, strolling affectionately intertwined, sitting on a recreation center seat with their arms around one another, standing intently and peacefully in a vestibule. Everybody on the planet however Francie had a darling or a companion she was by all accounts the main desolate one in Brooklyn without a companion. (403). Dejection is a steady test for Francie yet it is through her forlornness that she finds another buddy in her books. Francie peruses as an option for her absence of companions and allies. It is through her adoration for perusing that Francie builds up her broad, modern jargon. Her books lead her into development and assist her with figuring out how to be autonomous and conquered her numerous hardships.
Thursday, July 23, 2020
Diagnostic Changes in the DSM-V for Eating Disorders Eating Disorders Print Diagnostic Changes for Eating Disorders in the DSM-V By Susan Cowden, MS facebook linkedin Susan Cowden is a licensed marriage and family therapist and a member of the Academy for Eating Disorders. Learn about our editorial policy Susan Cowden, MS Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on October 18, 2019 Tom M Johnson / Getty Images More in Eating Disorders Symptoms Treatment Diagnosis Awareness and Prevention Considered the bible of the psychiatric and mental health world, the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) sets the criteria needed to diagnose certain mental disorders. Diagnostic changes in new editions carry significant weight with mental health professionals, and with the release of the fifth edition (DSM-V), criteria for eating disorders underwent major changes. In several cases, its now easier for clinicians to diagnose someone with an eating disorder compared to the earlier edition DSM-IV-TR, which was published in 2000 and had more finite definitions. Heres a brief synopsis of the changes in the DSM-V for diagnosing eating disorders. Binge-Eating Disorder For the first time, the DSM-V includes binge-eating disorder as a fully recognized and diagnosable disorder. The DSM-IV-TR had previously included binge-eating disorder as a provisional list of criteria âfor research purposes.â Essentially, the previous edition had viewed binge-eating disorder as too new to decipher the appropriate criteria. Ideally, this change should provide more validity to those who are struggling with binge eatingâ"in which people typically eat more quickly than normal, eat until theyre uncomfortably full, or eat alone out of shameâ"and will hopefully provide them with more coverage and treatment options, as well. Diagnostic Criteria for Binge-Eating Disorder Anorexia Nervosa The DSM-V made two major changes to the way anorexia nervosaâ"a condition associated with restricted food intake, fear of weight gain, and distorted body imageâ"is diagnosed, broadening its definition: Bodyweight: In the DSM-IV-TR, a persons weight had to be at or under 85% of the ideal body weight (according to the body mass index, or BMI) to be diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, thus excluding those who were suffering but hadnât yet lost enough weight to be officially diagnosed. In the update, DSM-V qualifies diagnosis if the person has reached a âsignificantly low weight,â giving treatment professionals the autonomy to specify the severity of the disorder.Menstruation: Previously, women had to have three or more skipped periods to be diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Now, teen girls and women no longer have to have lost their periods (a condition technically called amenorrhea). Diagnostic Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is characterized by purging (self-inducing vomiting or using laxatives) or non-purging (fasting or excessive exercise) behaviors, and the DSM-Vs definition has changed in three significant ways: Frequency of behaviors: The DSM-V criteria for bulimia nervosa require binge eating and compensatory actions to occur for at least once a week for at least three months compared to the DSM-IV-TRs definition, which had a more narrow window of at least twice a week for at least three months.Categories: While the former edition listed separate classifications for the purging type of bulimia nervosa and the non-purging, these types are lumped together in the DSM-V, as clinicians now recognize that people with the disorder can engage in a variety of behaviors.Phases of recovery: Professionals can currently specify whether the person is in partial or full remission from the disorder, and how severe their disorder is based on the frequency of binge and purging episodes as well as how much the disorder affects day-to-day life. Diagnostic Criteria for Bulimia Nervosa Other Types of Feeding or Eating Disorders The DSM-V update also included two other forms of eating disorder: other specified feeding or eating disorder and unspecified feeding or eating disorder, which had been previously lumped together as eating disorderâ"not otherwise specified in the DSM-IV-TR. Here are the ways they differ, according to the new edition: Other specified feeding or eating disorder: This term is more specific and applies primarily to people with some or most of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder but either havenât lost enough weight, arenât experiencing symptoms often enough, or havenât been suffering long enough to qualify for a full diagnosis. It also includes purging disorder, which occurs when someone uses purging behaviors but does not engage in binge-eating behaviors (as in bulimia nervosa).Unspecified feeding or eating disorder: This broader category encompasses problems that donât fit into any current category or when the diagnosing professional doesnât have enough information (such as in an emergency room). Diagnostic Criteria Is a Work in Progress Its important to note that the DSM is always, and always has been, a work in progress. There continue to be debates and disagreements among professionals about even the most current diagnostic criteria. However, the definitions included in the DSM do provide researchers and clinicians with a language for talking about and describing sets of symptoms many people are struggling with and that need treatment. A Word From Verywell Eating disorders can be a complicated, emotional journey for both the person living with the disorder as well as their family and loved ones. While recovery can be a physical and mental struggle, it is possible. If you or someone you know is experiencing some or all of the symptoms of any eating disorder, please consult with a physician, dietitian, or mental health professional for assessment and treatment. 9 Essential Facts About Eating Disorders
Friday, May 22, 2020
Sergio Rodriguez Sci. 351A Due: 07-30-15 The Effect of Shale Gas on Global Warming and Climate Change and the Environment Global warming is a very disputed issue due to the fact that in every situation, there are two sides to a story. Some believe global warming is not an issue seeing as there have been trends in the past that indicate that the world changes constantly and that it will once again come to its natural order. Like geologist Charles Lyell once stated with his idea of uniformitarianism, that the Earth is shaped by the same processes still in operation today. Also, James Hutton stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"The future will resemble the pastÃ¢â¬ , meaning that the events happening today, have already occurred, therefore they will happen once againÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shale is a soft, fine sedimentary rock that formed from consolidated mud or clay. It contains shale gas that is trapped within the shale formations which are rich in petroleum and natural gas. Studies have shown that 3.6% up to 7.9% of methane from shale gas escapes through venting and leaks into the atmosphere over a lifetime of a well. Methane emissions are considered to be at least 30% higher in concentration than conventional gas. That is, pools in which wells can be drilled so that oil and natural gas flow naturally and can be pumped to the surface. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential that is far greater than that of carbon dioxide. Shale gas contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas footprint on a shorter time scale, and results have shown that it leaves a 20% greater footprint than coal. Natural gas is being used as a transitional fuel which allows for further dependence on fossil fuels, yet reducing the green house gasses (GHG) when compared to oil and coal. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the United States produced its oil and gas through the use of conventional reservoirs, but in 2009, unconventional production took the lead. There is really not much of a difference between conventional an d unconventional gas, but they are described as a Ã¢â¬Å"sponge and clayÃ¢â¬ production process. Gas is extracted far more easily though the use of conventional production, but in turn
Thursday, May 7, 2020
The Indian Judicial System is described as a system which is partly a continuation of the legal system, established by the British and follows a structure which is a combination of American Legal System and the British Legal System. It follows a hierarchical construction in the order of the court with Supreme Court (SC) at the top, followed by the High Court (HC), further followed by the District Courts (DC). The Indian Judicial System is an independent entity, which does not fall under the control of the government and its various branches. The treatment of persons with mental illness has been documented in the ancient Ayurvedic texts, but introduction of a separate institution for the sole purpose of the care of the mentally ill is aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This Act intended to do away with the discriminations that were present in the previous Act with respect to sharing of benefits in relation to non-disabled persons. It also aimed at putting a stop on abuse and exploitation of persons with disability (PWD). It required the government to carry out inclusive development plans that would help in the integration of PWD in social mainstream. Under this, mental retardation and mental illness are categorized as conditions of disabilities. Therefore, person with mental illness were eligible for the benefits available to persons with disability. After this came the National Trust Act, 1999; this was enacted for the welfare of persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities. The Act aimed to empower these people and make it possible for them to live as independently as possible and live closely and within the community they belong to so that they can have equal access to the various opportunities, further enabling them to protect their rights . In 2006, India with many other countries signed the United Nations Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities- 2006 (UNCRPD, 2006). These countries were to reshape their laws in accord to the requirements of UNCPRD. The UNCPRD was adopted by the parliament of India in May, 2008. This saw a major change taking place with respect to the social welfare ofShow MoreRelatedAn Evaluation of an on-Farm Food Safety Program for Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Producers; a Global Blueprint for Fruit and Vegetable Producers51659 Words Ã |Ã 207 Pagesblueprint for fruit and vegetable producers Benjamin J. Chapman University of Guelph, 2005 Advisor: Professor Douglas A. Powell Fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasingly linked to cases of foodborne illness. Many produce farmers have implemented on-farm food safety strategies, employing good agricultural practices focusing on water, handling and sanitation to reduce risk. An illustrative case study to examine implementation trends was developed through the examinationRead MoreIch Gcp Guidelines19159 Words Ã |Ã 77 Pages.................9 Composition, Functions and Operations...............................................................11 Procedures ..............................................................................................................11 Records....................................................................................................................12 INVESTIGATOR ..................................................................................................12 Investigator sRead MoreMethods of Qualitative of Data Collection19658 Words Ã |Ã 79 Pagesmade in th ese seven categories shape how the specific research methods are conceived and implemented throughout a study. Explicit discussion of assumptions strengthens the overall logic and integrity of the proposal. PRIMARY METHODS Observation Observation entails the systematic noting and recording of events, behaviors, and artifacts (objects) in the social setting chosen for study. The observational record is frequently referred to as field notesÃ¢â¬âdetailed, nonjudgmental, concrete descriptions ofRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words Ã |Ã 549 Pagesyour company. a. Identify the key decisions you need to make to be successful entrepreneurs, the information you need to make them, and the business processes you will need to engage in. b. Your company will need to exchange information with various external parties. Identify the external parties, and specify the information received from and sent to each of them. The author turns this question into an in-class group activity. Students are divided up in groups, told to close their books, andRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words Ã |Ã 604 Pageswhen Donald Borwhat, Jr., took over as Senior Vice President of Human Resources, he and his staff began by restructuring and decentralizing the HR entity so that each functional area of the company has an HR manager assigned to it. The HR managers were expected to be key contributors to their areas by becoming knowledgeable about the business issues faced by their business functional units. Today, HR managers participate in developing business strategies and ensure that human resource dimensionsRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words Ã |Ã 960 Pages Risk Management for Information Security 565 Compliance with Laws and Regulations 567 Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) 567 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (GBLA) 569 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) The PATRIOT Act 569 Organizational Polices for Information Security Planning for Business Continuity 571 Electronic Records Management (ERM) 571 569 Review Questions 573 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discussion Questions 574 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bibliography 574 Chapter 15 Social, Ethical, and LegalRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 Pages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Job-Related Mental Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Burnout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Violence and Crime in the Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 External Impacts on Human ResourcesÃ¢â¬âLegal Protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Equal Employment Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Other Important Federal Legislation . . Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesand Disconfirmation 246 Principles of Supportive Communication 247 Supportive Communication Is Based on Congruence, Not Incongruence 247 Supportive Communication Is Descriptive, Not Evaluative 248 Supportive Communication Is Problem-oriented, Not Person-oriented 250 Supportive Communication Validates Rather than Invalidates I ndividuals 251 Supportive Communication Is Specific (Useful), Not Global (Nonuseful) 253 Supportive Communication Is Conjunctive, Not Disjunctive 254 Supportive CommunicationRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesAttractions: Developing an OB Model 23 An Overview 23 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inputs 24 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Processes 25 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Outcomes 25 Summary and Implications for Managers 30 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? 4 Myth or Science? Ã¢â¬Å"Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking WomenÃ¢â¬ 12 An Ethical Choice Can You Learn from Failure? 24 glOBalization! Does National Culture Affect Organizational Practices? 30 Point/Counterpoint Lost in Translation? 31 Questions for Review 32 ExperientialRead MoreReed Supermarket Case32354 Words Ã |Ã 130 PagesFifth edition published 2011 Ã © Prentice Hall Europe 1998 Ã © Pearson Education Limited 2001, 2011 The right of Svend Hollensen to be identiÃ¯ ¬ ed as author of this work has been asserted by the author in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, by Henrik Ibson, Torvald and Nora have an unacceptable marriage that only leads to problems. The marriage, and the household, is overrun by male dominance that prevents Nora and Torvald from complete love and marital respect. Relating to the playÃ¢â¬â¢s name, Torvald treats Nora, and even his children, as his dolls, expecting them to be as he wants. We will write a custom essay sample on A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House: a Marriage Revealed or any similar topic only for you Order Now As the play progresses, we see the truth of the. The play was set in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, so in this time it was customary for the man to be the provider and the woman do what she is told. However, Torvald took it to the next step in believing that Nora and his kids were there for him to dictate in every way. Nora doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help the situation as she has become fully dependent on Torvald, just as she was with her father. Torvald seems to take this to his advantage and uses her for whatever he wants or needs, right down to whom she is supposed to speak, and what she has to tell Torvald. After Krogstad confronts Nora about putting in a good word for him, Torvald comes in and begins to question Nora about it, at a point in which they exchange these words: HELMER: Nora, Nora, and you could fall for that? Talk with that sort of person and promise him anything? And then in bargain, tell me an untruth? NORA: An untruthÃ¢â¬â? HELMER: DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t you say that no one had been here? (wagging his finger) My little songbird must never do that again. A songbird needs a clean beak to warble with. No false notes. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way it should be, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Yes, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure of it. And so, enough of that. As it can be seen, Torvald puts the hold on Nora that she can only have certain relations, and if he asks of something she must tell him everything. This kind of hold can make any serious matter somewhat tense, or even awkward, which is why their marriage lacks anything beyond light and playful. Torvald refers to Nora with nicknames such as Ã¢â¬Å"squirrelÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"spendthriftÃ¢â¬ , which are little pet names he has given her that show what place he puts her in. He uses these names when he is having her do something he wants her to do, Nora seems to like these names, and whenever referred to as one, she does little dances and acts to keep TorvaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. Due to how NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father was, she is used to this kind of treatment where she is TorvaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ doll, and he does with her what he wants. It has made her completely dependent on him and allows him to make every decision for her, from what she and the kids should do, to what costume she is to wear to their party. As the play progresses, we see the realization build up more and more in Nora as things with Krogstad and the loan forgery become more and more involved. She becomes a little more distant form Torvald every time they have a conversation, and his ways donÃ¢â¬â¢t change. At the end, Torvald receives KrogstadsÃ¢â¬â¢ letter revealing what all is truly going on, and that Nora forged her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s signature to get money to save TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Krogstad will be using it to his advantage, and Torvald unleashes his anger on Nora, demeaning her and claiming she has practically ruined his life. In the midst of his raid, he lets it all be known: HELMER: Oh, what an awful awakening! In all these eight yearsÃ¢â¬âshe who was my pride and joyÃ¢â¬âa hypocrite, a liarÃ¢â¬âworse, worseÃ¢â¬âa criminal! How infinitely disgusting it all is! The shame! I should have suspected something of the kind. I should have known. All your fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s flimsy values have come out in you. No religion, no morals, no sense of dutyÃ¢â¬âOh, how IÃ¢â¬â¢m punished for letting him off! I did it for your sake, and you repay me like this! Torvald continues on, until Krogstad sends another letter to let Torvald know that things have changed and he needs not to worry. At this point, Torvald begins to act like everything is okay and Nora should feel the same, but she has decided to leave. Nora and Torvald sit down and she begins to tell him how she really feels. She finally realizes that she is his doll, and not even her own person. She now wants to go out on her own and find her own thoughts and beliefs and become someone real. In conclusion, they come to see that in their eight years of marriage, there has never been real true love, or any true communication, which ultimately brought the marriage. Torvald doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to quite grasp it all, or why the greatest miracle would be their living together in a true marriage. But, after all he has put her through, they could never live in true marital bliss, or even with just true feelings towards each other. How to cite A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House: a Marriage Revealed, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
There are five stages that a customer goes through before making the ultimate decision to make a purchase. These stages as noted by Lantos (2011) are problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Services Consumer Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each consumer passes all these stages until a purchase is made. The essay is an attempt to describe how I progressed through the named stages of decision making while purchasing a tourism service. In addition, the essay explores how the concept of risk is perceived and managed while purchasing a tourism service. Moreover, the implications of the concept of risk with regard to the service provider of the tourism equation have been discussed. Prior to making a decision to purchase the tourism service, I followed the five stages of need recognition, problem awareness , information search, alternatives evaluation, service purchase and post-purchase evaluation (Lantos, 2011). The stages are represented in the diagram below as described by Tyagi and Kumar (2004). Figure 1: Stages of the decision process for purchase Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the problem recognition stage, the need to go on holiday triggered my desire to go on vacation. The desire to travel as a tourist was important as it aroused the need to search for important information on my impending tourism adventure. The information search phase is important as it helps the consumer in making wise decisions (Tyagi Kumar 2004). To acquire the necessary information, different sources such as personal sources, commercial sources, public sources and experience sources are used. In my case, I searched for the necessary information from commercial sources such tourist servi ce provider websites, major hotels, and tourist agencies. Since it was my first tourism adventure, it was important also to get more information from friends and relatives. Other sources of information that proved to be useful include newspapers, tourist magazines, catalogues, and internet advertisements. After information search, it was time to undertake an alternative evaluation. During this stage, I compared different tourist destinations and hotels. The comparison was based on the expected service quality, perceived risk, cost to be incurred, price offered, anticipated satisfaction, and any discounts offered. I compared different features of tourist destination based on the tourist services offered. After searching for alternatives, it was time to make the purchase decision. This involved the actual buying of the tourism service which was based on different factors. Some of the factors that I had to take into account during the purchase of the service include the opinions of fam ily and friends, recommendations and perceptions, available income, services offered by tourist agencies, and discounts offered.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Services Consumer Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The final stage involved in service purchase decision making was post-purchase behaviour (Lantos 2011). In this stage, consumers experience concerns after the purchase decision has been made based on cognitive dissonance (Tyagi Kumar 2004). During this stage, I experienced mixed reactions on whether I had made the right decisions in purchasing the tourism service. To my consolation, the market of the tourism service pointed out that I had made the right decision as regards the purchase. After this experience, I can now recommend the service that I purchased to others. How Concept of Ã¢â¬ËriskÃ¢â¬â¢ is perceived and managed Perceived risk can be described as the level of uncertainty while m aking a purchase decision relative to the outcome realized (Mitchell 1999). As a tourist, the concept of risk played an important role in the purchase decision making process. Given that it was my first time to undertake a tourism service purchase, the level of risk perception was very high. According to Dickson and Dolnicar (2004), perception of risk is very high among consumers especially in the tourism industry. In addition, risks perceived are influenced by social cultural aspects like demographics and level of income. In my case, family recommendations played an important role in reducing the perceived risks. During the purchase, the perceived risk was related to price, anticipated satisfaction and value for money. The question of whether the decision made is the right one always arises during the decision making process.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the rational choice theory, all consumers make rational decisions to maximize on purchased services or product. With respect to my tourism purchase, all potential risks were evaluated to achieve maximum satisfaction from the purchase. Perceived risk is managed through the use of available information on a particular service or product (Cunningham Gerlach, Harper 2004). This is normally high in service marketing because unlike products, services are intangible. As noted by Cunningham, Gerlach, and Harper (2004), availability of information on the services provided helps in the management of perceived risks. With respect to the purchase, availability of adequate information on the tourism service purchased reduced the perceived risks. In addition, information from friends and relatives reduced the perceived risks and aided in the decision making process. Availability of information through adverts and other media outlets aids the consumer in making a purchase decision withou t postponing (Cunningham et al. 2004). In the second and third stages, a consumer relies on personal recommendations and any available information that can reduce the perceived risk before a purchase is made. The aforementioned factors played an important role in managing perceived risks while I made decisions related to the purchase. Implications risk hold for service providers in tourism / hospitality Perceived risks hold some implications to the suppliers of tourism services. For instance, high levels of risk perception by consumers reduce the number of sales made by tourism providers. As noted by Dickson and Dolnicar (2004), risks play an integral role in the tourism industry since they enable service providers to offer the best services. In addition, risks enable service providers in the supply side of tourism and hospitality equation design high valuable brands which increase the level of trust (Mitchell, 1999). The higher the perceived risk of a certain product or service the lower the chance of the consumer purchasing that product or service. This affects the sales volumes of the product or service in question. Cunningham, Gerlach, and Harper (2004) opine that Ã¢â¬Å"an extremely high level of perceived risk can cause a consumer to postpone or avoid a purchase entirelyÃ¢â¬ (p. 23). This means that if a consumer perceives the risk associated with a particular service will be high, and the consumer has the likelihood of postponing or avoiding the purchase. With respect to the service providers in hospitality or tourism sector high risk would make consumers avoid or postpone a purchase. Avoiding or postponing a purchase reduces the level of service sales and market share. In addition it exposes service providers to losses and low level of income. Conclusion The decision making process while purchasing a product or service entails different stages namely; need recognition and problem awareness, information search, alternatives evaluation, service purcha se ad post-purchase evaluation. Perceived risk is important as it assists the consumer to make effective decisions in order to maximize utility and achieve the anticipated satisfaction. Risk perception is managed through information search from multiple sources. In addition, personal recommendations assist consumers manage perceived risk in second and third stages. High level of risk reduces sales as it makes consumer avoid a purchase or postpone it. Reference List Cunningham, D F, Gerlach, J Harper, M D, 2004, Ã¢â¬ËAssessing perceived risk of consumers in internet airline reservations servicesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Air Transportation, vol. 9, no.1, pp. 21-35. Dickson, T Dolnicar, S, 2004. No risk, no fun Ã¢â¬â the role of perceived risk in adventure tourism. Sydney, University of Wollongong Press. Lantos, G P 2011, Consumer behavior in action: real-life applications for marketing managers, Sharpe, Armonk. Mitchell, V, 1999, Ã¢â¬ËConsumer perceived risk: Conceptualisations an d modelsÃ¢â¬â¢, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33, no. 1/2, pp. 163-195 Tyagi, C L Kumar, A 2004. Consumer behavior, Atlantic, New Delhi. This essay on Services Consumer Behaviour was written and submitted by user Artur0 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.