Friday, May 22, 2020
Sergio Rodriguez Sci. 351A Due: 07-30-15 The Effect of Shale Gas on Global Warming and Climate Change and the Environment Global warming is a very disputed issue due to the fact that in every situation, there are two sides to a story. Some believe global warming is not an issue seeing as there have been trends in the past that indicate that the world changes constantly and that it will once again come to its natural order. Like geologist Charles Lyell once stated with his idea of uniformitarianism, that the Earth is shaped by the same processes still in operation today. Also, James Hutton stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"The future will resemble the pastÃ¢â¬ , meaning that the events happening today, have already occurred, therefore they will happen once againÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shale is a soft, fine sedimentary rock that formed from consolidated mud or clay. It contains shale gas that is trapped within the shale formations which are rich in petroleum and natural gas. Studies have shown that 3.6% up to 7.9% of methane from shale gas escapes through venting and leaks into the atmosphere over a lifetime of a well. Methane emissions are considered to be at least 30% higher in concentration than conventional gas. That is, pools in which wells can be drilled so that oil and natural gas flow naturally and can be pumped to the surface. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential that is far greater than that of carbon dioxide. Shale gas contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas footprint on a shorter time scale, and results have shown that it leaves a 20% greater footprint than coal. Natural gas is being used as a transitional fuel which allows for further dependence on fossil fuels, yet reducing the green house gasses (GHG) when compared to oil and coal. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s the United States produced its oil and gas through the use of conventional reservoirs, but in 2009, unconventional production took the lead. There is really not much of a difference between conventional an d unconventional gas, but they are described as a Ã¢â¬Å"sponge and clayÃ¢â¬ production process. Gas is extracted far more easily though the use of conventional production, but in turn
Thursday, May 7, 2020
The Indian Judicial System is described as a system which is partly a continuation of the legal system, established by the British and follows a structure which is a combination of American Legal System and the British Legal System. It follows a hierarchical construction in the order of the court with Supreme Court (SC) at the top, followed by the High Court (HC), further followed by the District Courts (DC). The Indian Judicial System is an independent entity, which does not fall under the control of the government and its various branches. The treatment of persons with mental illness has been documented in the ancient Ayurvedic texts, but introduction of a separate institution for the sole purpose of the care of the mentally ill is aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This Act intended to do away with the discriminations that were present in the previous Act with respect to sharing of benefits in relation to non-disabled persons. It also aimed at putting a stop on abuse and exploitation of persons with disability (PWD). It required the government to carry out inclusive development plans that would help in the integration of PWD in social mainstream. Under this, mental retardation and mental illness are categorized as conditions of disabilities. Therefore, person with mental illness were eligible for the benefits available to persons with disability. After this came the National Trust Act, 1999; this was enacted for the welfare of persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities. The Act aimed to empower these people and make it possible for them to live as independently as possible and live closely and within the community they belong to so that they can have equal access to the various opportunities, further enabling them to protect their rights . In 2006, India with many other countries signed the United Nations Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities- 2006 (UNCRPD, 2006). These countries were to reshape their laws in accord to the requirements of UNCPRD. The UNCPRD was adopted by the parliament of India in May, 2008. This saw a major change taking place with respect to the social welfare ofShow MoreRelatedAn Evaluation of an on-Farm Food Safety Program for Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Producers; a Global Blueprint for Fruit and Vegetable Producers51659 Words Ã |Ã 207 Pagesblueprint for fruit and vegetable producers Benjamin J. Chapman University of Guelph, 2005 Advisor: Professor Douglas A. Powell Fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasingly linked to cases of foodborne illness. Many produce farmers have implemented on-farm food safety strategies, employing good agricultural practices focusing on water, handling and sanitation to reduce risk. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the play A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, by Henrik Ibson, Torvald and Nora have an unacceptable marriage that only leads to problems. The marriage, and the household, is overrun by male dominance that prevents Nora and Torvald from complete love and marital respect. Relating to the playÃ¢â¬â¢s name, Torvald treats Nora, and even his children, as his dolls, expecting them to be as he wants. We will write a custom essay sample on A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House: a Marriage Revealed or any similar topic only for you Order Now As the play progresses, we see the truth of the. The play was set in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, so in this time it was customary for the man to be the provider and the woman do what she is told. However, Torvald took it to the next step in believing that Nora and his kids were there for him to dictate in every way. Nora doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help the situation as she has become fully dependent on Torvald, just as she was with her father. Torvald seems to take this to his advantage and uses her for whatever he wants or needs, right down to whom she is supposed to speak, and what she has to tell Torvald. After Krogstad confronts Nora about putting in a good word for him, Torvald comes in and begins to question Nora about it, at a point in which they exchange these words: HELMER: Nora, Nora, and you could fall for that? Talk with that sort of person and promise him anything? And then in bargain, tell me an untruth? NORA: An untruthÃ¢â¬â? HELMER: DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t you say that no one had been here? (wagging his finger) My little songbird must never do that again. A songbird needs a clean beak to warble with. No false notes. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way it should be, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Yes, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure of it. And so, enough of that. As it can be seen, Torvald puts the hold on Nora that she can only have certain relations, and if he asks of something she must tell him everything. This kind of hold can make any serious matter somewhat tense, or even awkward, which is why their marriage lacks anything beyond light and playful. Torvald refers to Nora with nicknames such as Ã¢â¬Å"squirrelÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"spendthriftÃ¢â¬ , which are little pet names he has given her that show what place he puts her in. He uses these names when he is having her do something he wants her to do, Nora seems to like these names, and whenever referred to as one, she does little dances and acts to keep TorvaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. Due to how NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father was, she is used to this kind of treatment where she is TorvaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ doll, and he does with her what he wants. It has made her completely dependent on him and allows him to make every decision for her, from what she and the kids should do, to what costume she is to wear to their party. As the play progresses, we see the realization build up more and more in Nora as things with Krogstad and the loan forgery become more and more involved. She becomes a little more distant form Torvald every time they have a conversation, and his ways donÃ¢â¬â¢t change. At the end, Torvald receives KrogstadsÃ¢â¬â¢ letter revealing what all is truly going on, and that Nora forged her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s signature to get money to save TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Krogstad will be using it to his advantage, and Torvald unleashes his anger on Nora, demeaning her and claiming she has practically ruined his life. In the midst of his raid, he lets it all be known: HELMER: Oh, what an awful awakening! In all these eight yearsÃ¢â¬âshe who was my pride and joyÃ¢â¬âa hypocrite, a liarÃ¢â¬âworse, worseÃ¢â¬âa criminal! How infinitely disgusting it all is! The shame! I should have suspected something of the kind. I should have known. All your fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s flimsy values have come out in you. No religion, no morals, no sense of dutyÃ¢â¬âOh, how IÃ¢â¬â¢m punished for letting him off! I did it for your sake, and you repay me like this! Torvald continues on, until Krogstad sends another letter to let Torvald know that things have changed and he needs not to worry. At this point, Torvald begins to act like everything is okay and Nora should feel the same, but she has decided to leave. Nora and Torvald sit down and she begins to tell him how she really feels. She finally realizes that she is his doll, and not even her own person. She now wants to go out on her own and find her own thoughts and beliefs and become someone real. In conclusion, they come to see that in their eight years of marriage, there has never been real true love, or any true communication, which ultimately brought the marriage. Torvald doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to quite grasp it all, or why the greatest miracle would be their living together in a true marriage. But, after all he has put her through, they could never live in true marital bliss, or even with just true feelings towards each other. How to cite A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House: a Marriage Revealed, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
There are five stages that a customer goes through before making the ultimate decision to make a purchase. These stages as noted by Lantos (2011) are problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Services Consumer Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each consumer passes all these stages until a purchase is made. The essay is an attempt to describe how I progressed through the named stages of decision making while purchasing a tourism service. In addition, the essay explores how the concept of risk is perceived and managed while purchasing a tourism service. Moreover, the implications of the concept of risk with regard to the service provider of the tourism equation have been discussed. Prior to making a decision to purchase the tourism service, I followed the five stages of need recognition, problem awareness , information search, alternatives evaluation, service purchase and post-purchase evaluation (Lantos, 2011). The stages are represented in the diagram below as described by Tyagi and Kumar (2004). Figure 1: Stages of the decision process for purchase Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the problem recognition stage, the need to go on holiday triggered my desire to go on vacation. The desire to travel as a tourist was important as it aroused the need to search for important information on my impending tourism adventure. The information search phase is important as it helps the consumer in making wise decisions (Tyagi Kumar 2004). To acquire the necessary information, different sources such as personal sources, commercial sources, public sources and experience sources are used. In my case, I searched for the necessary information from commercial sources such tourist servi ce provider websites, major hotels, and tourist agencies. Since it was my first tourism adventure, it was important also to get more information from friends and relatives. Other sources of information that proved to be useful include newspapers, tourist magazines, catalogues, and internet advertisements. After information search, it was time to undertake an alternative evaluation. During this stage, I compared different tourist destinations and hotels. The comparison was based on the expected service quality, perceived risk, cost to be incurred, price offered, anticipated satisfaction, and any discounts offered. I compared different features of tourist destination based on the tourist services offered. After searching for alternatives, it was time to make the purchase decision. This involved the actual buying of the tourism service which was based on different factors. Some of the factors that I had to take into account during the purchase of the service include the opinions of fam ily and friends, recommendations and perceptions, available income, services offered by tourist agencies, and discounts offered.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Services Consumer Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The final stage involved in service purchase decision making was post-purchase behaviour (Lantos 2011). In this stage, consumers experience concerns after the purchase decision has been made based on cognitive dissonance (Tyagi Kumar 2004). During this stage, I experienced mixed reactions on whether I had made the right decisions in purchasing the tourism service. To my consolation, the market of the tourism service pointed out that I had made the right decision as regards the purchase. After this experience, I can now recommend the service that I purchased to others. How Concept of Ã¢â¬ËriskÃ¢â¬â¢ is perceived and managed Perceived risk can be described as the level of uncertainty while m aking a purchase decision relative to the outcome realized (Mitchell 1999). As a tourist, the concept of risk played an important role in the purchase decision making process. Given that it was my first time to undertake a tourism service purchase, the level of risk perception was very high. According to Dickson and Dolnicar (2004), perception of risk is very high among consumers especially in the tourism industry. In addition, risks perceived are influenced by social cultural aspects like demographics and level of income. In my case, family recommendations played an important role in reducing the perceived risks. During the purchase, the perceived risk was related to price, anticipated satisfaction and value for money. The question of whether the decision made is the right one always arises during the decision making process.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the rational choice theory, all consumers make rational decisions to maximize on purchased services or product. With respect to my tourism purchase, all potential risks were evaluated to achieve maximum satisfaction from the purchase. Perceived risk is managed through the use of available information on a particular service or product (Cunningham Gerlach, Harper 2004). This is normally high in service marketing because unlike products, services are intangible. As noted by Cunningham, Gerlach, and Harper (2004), availability of information on the services provided helps in the management of perceived risks. With respect to the purchase, availability of adequate information on the tourism service purchased reduced the perceived risks. In addition, information from friends and relatives reduced the perceived risks and aided in the decision making process. Availability of information through adverts and other media outlets aids the consumer in making a purchase decision withou t postponing (Cunningham et al. 2004). In the second and third stages, a consumer relies on personal recommendations and any available information that can reduce the perceived risk before a purchase is made. The aforementioned factors played an important role in managing perceived risks while I made decisions related to the purchase. Implications risk hold for service providers in tourism / hospitality Perceived risks hold some implications to the suppliers of tourism services. For instance, high levels of risk perception by consumers reduce the number of sales made by tourism providers. As noted by Dickson and Dolnicar (2004), risks play an integral role in the tourism industry since they enable service providers to offer the best services. In addition, risks enable service providers in the supply side of tourism and hospitality equation design high valuable brands which increase the level of trust (Mitchell, 1999). The higher the perceived risk of a certain product or service the lower the chance of the consumer purchasing that product or service. This affects the sales volumes of the product or service in question. Cunningham, Gerlach, and Harper (2004) opine that Ã¢â¬Å"an extremely high level of perceived risk can cause a consumer to postpone or avoid a purchase entirelyÃ¢â¬ (p. 23). This means that if a consumer perceives the risk associated with a particular service will be high, and the consumer has the likelihood of postponing or avoiding the purchase. With respect to the service providers in hospitality or tourism sector high risk would make consumers avoid or postpone a purchase. Avoiding or postponing a purchase reduces the level of service sales and market share. In addition it exposes service providers to losses and low level of income. Conclusion The decision making process while purchasing a product or service entails different stages namely; need recognition and problem awareness, information search, alternatives evaluation, service purcha se ad post-purchase evaluation. Perceived risk is important as it assists the consumer to make effective decisions in order to maximize utility and achieve the anticipated satisfaction. Risk perception is managed through information search from multiple sources. In addition, personal recommendations assist consumers manage perceived risk in second and third stages. High level of risk reduces sales as it makes consumer avoid a purchase or postpone it. Reference List Cunningham, D F, Gerlach, J Harper, M D, 2004, Ã¢â¬ËAssessing perceived risk of consumers in internet airline reservations servicesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Air Transportation, vol. 9, no.1, pp. 21-35. Dickson, T Dolnicar, S, 2004. No risk, no fun Ã¢â¬â the role of perceived risk in adventure tourism. Sydney, University of Wollongong Press. Lantos, G P 2011, Consumer behavior in action: real-life applications for marketing managers, Sharpe, Armonk. Mitchell, V, 1999, Ã¢â¬ËConsumer perceived risk: Conceptualisations an d modelsÃ¢â¬â¢, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33, no. 1/2, pp. 163-195 Tyagi, C L Kumar, A 2004. Consumer behavior, Atlantic, New Delhi. This essay on Services Consumer Behaviour was written and submitted by user Artur0 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Social, Economical, And Political Effects Of World War I Essays Social, Economical, and Political Effects of World War I "Everywhere in the world was heard the sound of things breaking." Advanced European societies could not support long wars or so many thought prior to World War I. They were right in a way. The societies could not support a long war unchanged. The First World War left no aspect of European civilization untouched as pre-war governments were transformed to fight total war. The war metamorphed Europe socially, politicaly, economically, and intellectualy. European countries channeled all of their resources into total war which resulted in enormous social change. The result of working together for a common goal seemed to be unifying European societies. Death knocked down all barriers between people. All belligerents had enacted some form of a selective service which levelled classes in many ways. Wartime scarcities made luxury an impossibility and unfavorable. Reflecting this, clothing became uniform and utilitarian. Europeans would never again dress in fancy, elaborate costumes. Uniforms led the way in clothing change. The bright blue-and-red prewar French infantry uniforms had been changed after the first few months of the war, since they made whoever wore them into excellent targets for machine guns. Women's skirts rose above the ankle permanently and women became more of a part of society than ever. They undertook a variety of jobs previously held by men. They were now a part of clerical, secretarial work, and teaching. They were also more widely employed in industrial jobs. By 1918, 37.6 percent of the work force in the Krupp armaments firm in Germany was female. In England the proportion of women works rose strikingly in public transport (for example, from 18,000 to 117,000 bus conductors), banking (9,500 to 63,700), and commerce (505,000 to 934,000). Many restrictions on women disappeared during the war. It became acceptable for young, employed, single middle-class women to have their own apartments, to go out without chaperones, and to smoke in public. It was only a matter of time before women received the right to vote in many belligerent countries. Strong forces were shaping the power and legal status of labor unions, too. The right of workers to organize was relatively new, about half a century. Employers fought to keep union organizers out of their plants and armed force was often used against striking workers. The universal rallying of workers towards their flag at the beginning of the war led to wider acceptance of unions. It was more of a bureaucratic route than a parliamentary route that integrated organized labor into government, however. A long war was not possible without complete cooperation of the workers with respect to putting in longers hours and increasing productivity. Strike activity had reached its highest levels in history just before the war. There had been over 1,500 diffent work stoppages in France and 3,000 in Germany during 1910. More than a million British workers stopped at one time or another in 1912. In Britain, France, and Germany, deals were struck between unions and government to eliminate strikes and less favorable work conditions in exchange for immediate integration into the government process. This integration was at the cost of having to act more as managers of labor than as the voice of the labor. Suddenly, the strikes stopped during the first year of the war. Soon the enthusiasm died down, though. The revival of strike activity in 1916 shows that the social peace was already wearing thin. Work stoppages and the number of people on strike in France quadrupled in 1916 compared to 1915. In Germany, in May 1916, 50,000 Berlin works held a three-day walkout to protest the arrest of the pacifist Karl Liebknecht. By the end of the war most had rejected the government offer of being integrated in the beaurocracy, but not without playing an important public role and gaining some advantages such as collective bargaining. The war may have had a leveling effect in many ways, but it also sharpened some social differences and conflicts. Soldiers were revolting just like workers: They [soldiers] were no longer willing to sacrifice their lives when shirkers at home were earning all the money, tkaing, the women around in cars, cornering all the best jobs, and while so many profiteers were waxing rich.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Quotes by Ahmed Skou Tour Without being Communists, we believe that the analytical qualities of Marxism and the organization of the people are methods especially well-suited for our country.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, first president of Guinea, as quoted in Rolf Italiaanders The New Leaders of Africa, New Jersey, 1961 People are not born with racial prejudices. For example, children have none. Racial questions are questions of education. Africans learned racism form the European. Is it any wonder that they now think in terms of race after all theyve gone through under colonialism?Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, first president of Guinea, as quoted in Rolf Italiaanders The New Leaders of Africa, New Jersey, 1961 An African statesman is not a naked boy begging from rich capitalists.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, first president of Guinea, as quoted in Guinea: Trouble in Erewhon, Time, Friday 13 December 1963. The private trader has a greater sense of responsibility than civil servants, who get paid at the end of each month and only once in a while think of the nation or their own responsibility.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, first president of Guinea, as quoted in Guinea: Trouble in Erewhon, Time, Friday 13 December 1963. We ask you therefore, not to judge us or think of us in terms of what we were or even of what we are but rather to think of us in terms of history and what we will be tomorrow.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, first president of Guinea, as quoted in Rolf Italiaanders The New Leaders of Africa, New Jersey, 1961 We should go down to the grassroots of our culture, not to remain there, not to be isolated there, but to draw strength and substance there from, and with whatever additional sources of strength and material we acquire, proceed to set up a new form of society raised to the level of human progress.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, as quoted in Osei Amoahs A Political Dictionary of Black Quotations, published in London, 1989. To take part in the African revolution it is not enough to write a revolutionary song: you must fashion the revolution with the people. And if you fashion it with the people, the songs will come by themselves.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, as quoted in Osei Amoahs A Political Dictionary of Black Quotations, published in London, 1989. At sunset when you pray to God, say over and over that each man is a brother and that all men are equal.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, as quoted in Robin Halletts, Africa Since 1875, University of Michigan Press, 1974. We have told you bluntly, Mr President, what the demands of the people are ... We have one prime and essential need: our dignity. But there is no dignity without freedom ... We prefer freedom in poverty to opulence in slavery.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©s statement to General De Gaulle during the French leaders visit to Guinea in August 1958, as quoted in Robin Halletts, Africa Since 1875, University of Michigan Press, 1974. For the first twenty years, we in Guinea have concentrated on developing the mentality of our people. Now we are ready to move on to other business.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©. as quoted in David Lambs The Africans, New York 1985. I dont know what people mean when they call me the bad child of Africa. Is it that they consider us unbending in the fight against imperialism, against colonialism? If so, we can be proud to be called headstrong. Our wish is to remain a child of Africa unto our death..Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, as quoted in David Lambs The Africans, New York 1985. People of Africa, from now on you are reborn in history, because you mobilize yourself in the struggle and because the struggle before you restores to your own eyes and renders to you, justice in the eyes of the world.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, as quoted in The Permanent Struggle, The Black Scholar, Vol 2 No 7, March 1971. [T]he political leader is, by virtue of his communion of idea and action with his people, the representative of his people, the representative of a culture.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, as quoted in Molefi Kete Asante and Kariamu Welsh Asantes African Culture the Rhythms of Unity: The Rhythms of Unity Africa, World Press, October 1989. In the history of this new Africa which has just come into the world, Liberia has a preeminent place because she has been for each of our peoples the living proof that our liberty was possible. And nobody can ignore the fact that the star which marks the Liberian national emblem has been hanging for more than a century the sole star that illuminated our night of dominated peoples.Ahmed SÃ ©kou TourÃ ©, from his Liberian Independence Day Address of 26 July 1960, as quoted in Charles Morrow Wilsons Liberia: Black Africans in Microcosm, Harper and Row, 1971.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Disability And Chronic Illness In Nursing - Essay Example (A Beautiful Mind: 21-3-2005). Taking Melissa's case, lets discuss the various aspects of chronic illnesses. Chronic pain is not very responsive to narcotics and analgesics; it is more restrictive to different therapies of pain. Only a few patients can define an injury or pain as the cause of the illness, which is much lesser than the psychological feelings of depression and trauma, which such patients undergo. All these side effects may be the main cause for the chronic pain. (T.J. Murray, Chronic Pain Study). Chronic pain is an important social and medical problem for many reasons. It is very distressing to patients, as it affects their life and even their employment, and not very responsive to treatment. Chronic pain is associated with large financial, as in the case of Melissa, who did not get any sort of compensation or insurance for her treatment. In spite of its regularity and large costs, it becomes very difficult to understand and manage a patient, and ultimately becomes a cause of stress and confusion to everyone concerned with the patient. Chronic pain becomes the main cause of irritation for everyone - the patient, his or her family and friends, the employers, the insurance and payment agencies, and their physicians. As the patients don't respond to treatment, the physicians try to find a cause for the illness. Annually around billion dolla... percent of all pain patients go on to become chronic, the chronic pain patients come up to around more than half of the total cost of compensation for the pain, and stand for an rising group of very distraught and suffering people. (T.J. Murray, Chronic Pain Study). It is very difficult to understand and assess people with chronic illness, and difficult to fairly take care and compensate such people. The patient can only experience the pain in such chronic illnesses, it is difficult for anybody to assess the pain, an outsider can only experience it, as the patient says the pain is there. Chronic pain is defined as constant pain for more than 6 months when normal healing should have been expected. Some of the steps, which can be taken to ensure better care for chronic patients, are Recognition of the emotional, physical, behavioral and psychological factors involved in patients with chronic pain. Educating physicians, nurses and other health care professional of the nature and management of patients with chronic pain. Adopting a proper rehabilitation program for chronic pain like, better care for trauma and pain, recognizing the characteristics and behavior of pain, stressing the need for improved activity and physical movement, even in the case of pain, accepting the aim to return to work early. (T.J. Murray, Chronic Pain Study). Apart from the illness, people like Melissa have to face the social stigma, associated to such disabilities. Scholars of the disability policy describe four different models of disability: A right model of disability which considers disability as the outcome of a sin, a medical model of disability which considers disability as a fault or sickness, which can be cured by medicines, a rehabilitation model, an outcome of the medical model,